Learn Object-oriented Concepts in C++ with Real-world Examples

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C++ is an object-oriented language which is developed by Bjarne Stroustrup. All the concepts of object-oriented approach are very interesting. But sometimes we get the problem in understanding the concept and many confusion occurs when we try to understand it. Let’s see all of the object-oriented concepts introduced in C++ with real-world examples which provide the ease to understand the concepts of C++.

Object-oriented C++

C++ is not a pure object-oriented language because we can write the code without the classes. It is object-oriented because it supports the features provided by the object-oriented approach so it is a multi-paradigm language.

Important Concepts of Object-oriented in C++

  • Classes
  • Objects
  • Inheritance
  • Encapsulation
  • Abstraction
  • Polymorphism
  • Interface etc.

Are above names looking like some medicines name? Are you frightened after reading them? Don’t worry, I will be explaining them in the easiest way. These are main concepts which are supported by C++ to implement Object Oriented approach. All the topics are with a suitable example which is connected with real world.

Classes

A class is a user-defined data type which includes data members and functions. It contains a similar type of objects. It is considered as a blueprint of the object.

Example:
When we talk about birds then that is a class and when we talk about a particular bird like sparrow then we are talking about the object.

Objects

These are the real world entities. Who exists in the real world that is called objects like pen, pencil etc. And its class will be stationary.

Inheritance

Inheritance is the mechanism by which you can use the existing code. It is used to decrease the program’s length. It means you can use all the properties of a function or a complete class by inheriting it. It is based on parent-child relationship. Existing class considered as Parent and the new class is considered as child class. A child class can use the functions and variables of the parent class.

Syntax to inherit the existing class:-

class classname: access_specifier classname

Different types of Inheritance:-

  • Single Inheritance
  • Multiple Inheritance
  • Hierarchical Inheritance
  • Multilevel Inheritance
  • Hybrid Inheritance

Example:
To understand the concept of inheritance, please look at the parent-child relationship in the real world. As a child can use any of the property of the parents, similarly a child class can use all the properties of the parent class.

Encapsulation

Encapsulation is the important concept of OOP. It binds the functions and data together. It can be achieved by using classes with different access specifiers.

Example:
It is similar to a capsule. A capsule contains many of the ingredients and contains them in a single unit. So encapsulation means wrapping of data and functions in a single unit.

Abstraction

Abstraction is used to hide the information which helps in avoiding the interference of any external. It hides the information which is not necessary for the user, but it performs its function as well. It is called data hiding.  

Example:
For the concept Data hiding, you can look at the fan. You just know about the fan that it revolves and gives you the cooling without the knowledge of internal working or mechanism of the fan, it is data hiding. It means when the user only wants functionality only and not interested in mechanism or information is not necessary for the user the data hiding comes in use.

Polymorphism

Polymorphism is a combination of two words i.e Poly and morphs. Poly means many and morph means forms. It is achieved by overloading and overriding either it is operator overloading/overriding or function overloading/overriding.

Different types of  Polymorphism

There are two types of Polymorphism in C++:

  • Compile-time Polymorphism (It is achieved by overloading)
  • Run-time Polymorphism (It is achieved by overriding)

Example:
You can understand this concept by Switchboard. There are many buttons but each button performs different tasks.You can say it polymorphism. All are the buttons but working is different, similar  A function or operator has the same name but performs a different task.

Learning C++ from best C++ institute in Rohini, Delhi is a fun and its object-oriented concepts are really interesting. I tried to relate all the concepts with real life which help you to understand the requirements of these topics and inspire you to do an experiment to learn it perfectly. C++ is a good language, go for it.

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